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Involving Learners in Planning Learning
September 15, 2015

I’m a big believer in the power of engaging young people in their learning through involving them in the learning process. As Lois Harris argues, if students are going to feel that they own their learning they need to have opportunities to collaborate in the learning process:

Continuum of Learner Engagement (What) and how teachers can achieve these levels of engagement (How). Adapted from Harris (2010).

Continuum of Learner Engagement (What) and how teachers can achieve these levels of engagement (How).
Adapted from Harris (2010).

But how on earth can we as teachers involve our students in planning their learning? I’ve been working on adapting my practice to make this possible for a number of years now, so perhaps I could tell you how to go about doing this yourself?

Well, I’m not going to. My students are. I’d been working with my S1 Science class on developing approaches to involving them in planning learning last session when we were approached by Children in Scotland to participate in their Leaders of Learning project. Children in Scotland, the students and myself worked together over a number of weeks to explore and develop approaches to involve the students in planning their learning to a much greater extent. The project culminated in the students evaluating what we’d done, and producing the following video to communicate what we’d learned together.

Hope you enjoy learning from them, I know I have!

Cross-posted from fkelly.co.uk

What science knows vs what education does

What is the longest period of time you can focus your attention without your mind beginning to wander and your concentration plummeting off a cliff?

Wikipedia states that the maximum attention span for the average human is 5 minutes.  The longest time for healthy teenagers and adults is 20 minutes.

However, according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information, at the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the average attention span of a human being has dropped from 12 seconds in 2000 to 8 seconds in 2013. This is one second less than the attention span of a goldfish.

Inspiration 4 Teachers Podcast Show8 seconds to a maximum of 20 minutes is a startling difference, and worrying if you are an educator, but there are two key types of attention.  The 8 second attention span is known as ‘transient attention’ which is a short-term response to a stimulus that temporarily attracts or distracts attention.

Where educators need to focus their energy for learning is on selective sustained attention, also known as ‘focused attention’.  It is the level of attention that produces results on a task over time.  But if we only have a maximum of 20 minutes, why are most school lessons constructed around a 50 – 70 minute lesson structure, four to five times a day?  That means in the average school day there are around 20, twenty minute learning opportunities before breaks are considered.  If that seems like a lot, once you add in classroom transient distractions it’s possible that those opportunities for sustained concentration significantly decrease.

How do educators and schools address these lack of opportune moments for learning?  Shorter school days, more frequent lessons or breaks, the options are vast, but this is where we must focus our thought back on what science knows to be true.

Studies into the investigation of physical activity for learning reveal that:

“… breaks throughout the day can improve both student behaviour and learning (Trost, 2007)” (Reilly, Buskist, and Gross, 2012).


Science also reveals that sustained movement-aided learning significantly improves learning rather than purely mental learning activities:

“Movement is an exterior stimulus, and as long as the learner is engaged in his or her learning task the movement indicates that the learner’s attention is directed toward what is being learned. When attention is purely mental (interior) the activity becomes very difficult to sustain, because the nerve and muscle systems are inactive” (Shoval, 2011).

If frequent breaks and connecting the mind and body for learning have been proven to work, why does our education system not evolve based on what science knows?

On episode 35 of the Inspiration 4 Teachers Podcast Show, Rae Pica, host of Studentcentricity and founder of BAM Radio Network, discusses how connecting the mind and body is crucial for learning.  She reveals the ideal mind and body classroom for learning:

If you enjoyed this article please tweet the knowledge forward and share it with your community! 



Open-question starter keyring
September 12, 2015

Having shared the following tweet on #PedagooFriday yesterday, lots of teachers have asked me to share the template used to make this resource.

The resource is one that was shared at an in-school twilight CPD on Learning Conversations, just this past Wednesday. About 25 of the staff will be using them over the coming term to support and extend learning conversations as part of a wider school focus on Skills Development. Examples of uses and benefits will emerge as we follow up and share good practice.

Click here to download the template for an open-question starter for Learning Conversations, based on Bloom’s categories.

Use or alter size to fit preference – long strips, credit card, etc.  Print out on six different colours of card. Laminate, punch and clip together with keyring.  Example tweeted used credit card size laminating punches and round hinched binding rings.

Instagram and #teach180
September 10, 2015
Screen Shot 2015-09-09 at 20.44.10

I’ve not found much time for blogging over the summer since I’ve been moving house and deliberately trying to ‘wind’ down after a crazy busy year last year at work.

I’m back at work now and it feels like I’ve never been away! I’m enjoying my new timetable although it is jam-packed and I am sharing three classes which is a new thing for me – I’ve never had to share one class let alone three! I’m hoping to blog as I go this year as with previous years but there’s always a wee (big?!) stumbling block and that is time. There’s just not enough hours in the day, not enough days in the week, etc…

In fact I hardly ever manage to blog on a regular basis during term time so I know trying to commit to blogging is setting myself up to be disappointed and annoyed at myself… However, I take pics around my classroom almost every day. Pictures of good pupil work on sheets or in jotters, of unusual events such as yesterday’s school hike, of new displays, Puzzle club activities, etc. I usually save these pics and then take a couple of hours every few months to upload them to the department website so kids and parents can watch out for them. During the summer, however, I spent a bit of time with my sis who loves Instagram which got me thinking that I could create an account for my classroom.  So I did.

Here is my new Instagram account for sharing pictures from my classroom to the rest of the world.

I think this will make me feel better about not being a regular blogger although my heart wants to be! But more than that I have found the kids are eager to get their work photographed which has been a nice surprise and bonus :-)

Ed (@solvemymaths) has shared his idea of work selfies on his blog which is really good; so I’m going to get the kids to choose one piece/part/question/solution/etc. from the day/week’s work that is their best and they draw a wee camera beside it as a plenary exercise which will help me identify where the kids think they’ve done particularly well (self assessment) or on occasion get the kids to swap jotters and peers can choose where the wee camera logo goes as a peer assessment tool.

Earlier today I was over at Sarah Hagan’s blog stealing(!!!) more of her awesome wall display posters and came across her #teach180 idea for Twitter which also stems from a lack of time to blog regularly. It’s a great idea and I will be checking it regularly as the ideas so far have been brilliant and very interesting. It is especially cool that she is collating some of her highlights on her blog every week. My twitter account is for myself as a practitioner so I’m gonna ‘lurk’ around this idea without taking part and I definitely couldn’t commit to everyday. I sometimes don’t even get round to tweeting my week highlight for the awesome #PedagooFriday some weeks!!!

So my new Instagram account is for my kids and their parents. It’s for me as a teacher to display their awesomeness outside of the classroom on a display that the world can see… That’s gotta be worth the pupils putting the extra effort in for :-)

EAL Keywords

Inspired by a post by @mrshumanities showing keyword cards, and in a bit of a dilemma as to how best support my EAL pupils, today I spent a double period, whilst expertly covering an Administration class creating these handy cards, with some of the keywords we use in humanities in S1.

I am hoping they will be there as an easier alternative to constantly looking up a dictionary although I am heavily relying on Google translate. I am looking for other new ways to help support these pupils and will try and test some other strategies. It did take a wee bit of a wrestle with a laminator, something I am famous in the school for breaking, notoriously going through three in one day.

Tomorrow I am excited to use my new revision station resources I’ve made.

Originally posted on my blog https://misscwoodrmps.wordpress.com/2015/09/01/eal-keywords/

Visible Learning in Midlothian
September 2, 2015
Image by @midepsImage by @mideps

A blog was posted earlier in the year detailing the Visible Learning Journey that Midlothian are embarking on. I thought I would write a little update on where we are now, where we are heading to next and how we are going to get there.

The first of our 2 in-service days in August was dedicated to an inspiring Visible Learning Foundation Day Training. Across the 2 in-service days 500+ staff across Midlothian were given key messages of Visible Learning.As well as the 500+ staff, 130 support staff were also given an introduction into Visible Learning. A huge amount of organisation went into this and what a success it was. Thank you to all who were involved in this; Midlothian Education Psychology Team, Midlothian Education Team and our two trainers from OSIRIS Educational; Laura and Hill. I feel privileged to have been a part of such an exciting, stimulating and valuable professional learning opportunity(Twitter: #VLMidlothian)

The day began with a key note from Ken Muir. He set the context for education in Scotland. His inspirational messages on professional development and attainment within the Scottish Educational system were thought provoking and gave key points for further discussion. This was an excellent start to the day that gave key positive messages and highlighted the importance of professional development and driving your own professional learning which was echoed during the rest of the day.

This was followed by presentations on the key strands of visible learning which were delivered by Laura and Hill. This was supported by a number of great examples from Hodge Hill Primary School and Stonefields School in New Zealand and of course John Hattie himself. They did this with such enthusiasm and eagerness. They had a lot to cover and in a short space of time. Thank you!

We were lucky enough to have KJ Walton in attendance during the course of the day. It was great to hear K.J Walton talk about her experiences and provided an insight into the development of her books – “The Mindset Melting Pot” and “I can’t do this”. Both of which are fantastic and I cannot recommend them highly enough.

It was great to see just how many opportunities there are out there this session for Professional development and learning across Midlothian with links to Visible Learning from leadership training, reading groups and support sessions. EPS will be supporting their schools in gathering evidence and helping plan their journey.

Staff took away a number of key messages and there was a real buzz in school the day after the session. From talking with staff, here are some other key messages they took away (there were so many, I selected a few);

  1. Visible learning is a one size fits one approach
  2. Taking time to build positive relationships and build an ethos and environment of trust and respect.
  3. Create and build a shared language of learning to develop assessment capable learners in our school.
  4. Staff to get out of their comfort zone and use mindframes to help them develop and overcome this – becoming Inspired and Passionate teachers.
  5. High expectations – key part of effective learning. Pupils should aim to succeed and exceed their expectations – there is no roof on learning.
  6. Success is all around us – what is successful in our school and where do we need to go; (Where am I going? How am I doing? Where to next?)
  7. Hand in hand with Visible Learning is the development of a growth mindset.
  8. It is way of thinking about learning not just teaching.
  9. Creating a culture in school where mistakes are welcome not just from learners but from staff too.
  10.  Ensuring feedback is “just in time” and “just for me” – Effective Feedback doubles the speed of learning.

Twitter was filled with posts and re-tweets from across the 2 days if you look for the #vlmidlothian you will get a flavor of some. Here is a link to some of our tweets from the day – https://storify.com/mideps/vlmidlothian

So… it has been 2 weeks since the foundation days, Where are we now…. Well lots of schools have fully immersed themselves in data gathering and building foundations and relations which is key to Visible Learning. Lots of schools have gone down the route of “establishment phases where they have chosen key themes and concepts to introduce and embed into their daily practice. Some of which are; The Learning Brain, Growth Mindset and Mistake Making Culture. Some schools are also looking at what pupils think a good learner is. This gives a great starting point for mapping out their journey. All schools will be looking at the impact the work they are doing is having on their learners. This will help provide them with feedback and next steps.

The support and sharing of ideas on twitter has been incredible and it feels great to be a part of such an exciting time in education in our authority at the moment.

Lots of schools in our authority have been writing blogs to share their journey and reflections here are links to a few:






I personally am feeling inspired about the work we are doing and I am looking forward to developing this across my school this year and what makes it even better is that there is a huge network of ideas and support out there to help us on our way.

Bloom’s Taxonomy
Screen Shot 2015-08-31 at 19.11.54

It’s safe to say, I love Blooms!

I think Blooms is a brilliant way for teachers to ensure they are helping pupils progress as well as students can identify their skills easily. I love blooms so much, one of the first things I did when I got my new classroom was paint a massive triangle on the wall, and get pupils to add “I can” statements on it when they can do something new.
I think the issue I have with blooms is and don’t think I am alone is, we are good at creating wonderful Schemes of Work and Units, but actually sign-posting our skills and how that links into Higher Order Thinking is our downfall. Also I know i have been guilty of focusing on the task and not the skills being used.

I have given myself 2 new term resolutions this year.

  1. Use less PowerPoint and look at other teaching and presentation methods.
  2. Highlight skills progression to the pupils.

My first task has been to create these posters.IMAG0592

These break down the skills, the types of activities and question stems that can be used – an amalgamation of several posters I could find on Pintrest. Here’s the file to download the posters yourself: blooms posters.

So now my aim is to get pupils to be able to self evaluate their own learning and skills at the end of a task/ unit/ lesson. I also made up cover sheets for my junior classes that will be stuck into their jotters with the intended skill progression of the current unit we are on- encouraging them to color in the triangle as they move up the thinking skills.

I think Blooms can be used in many different ways and it is important that we share resources and ideas in order to encourage pupils to be using their thinking skills in a variety of ways.

Originally posted on my own blog bxarmps.wordpress.com

Preparing learners to face the future with a SMILE
Smart kids

“Our task is to educate their (our students) whole being so they can face the future. We may not see the future, but they will and our job is to help them make something of it.” ~ Sir Ken Robinson

Smart kidsIf you agree with Sir Ken Robinson, then you’ll also agree that education serves a purpose bigger than a suite of academic outcomes that only capture part of a person’s ability at the end of the schooling process.  If you agree with that statement, you might also be inclined to agree that our learners need to know how to find their purpose in life, how to be successful but in a manner which ensures their happiness and gratitude.  But how do you squeeze these positive psychology messages into a curriculum that is already overburdened and where teachers lack the time to develop resources that focus on the learners’ well-being?

Gratitude trees are a visual representation of recognising acts of kindness.  They are easily implemented into a classroom environment and can be the first step in a process where our learners embark on a journey of well-being and self-discovery.

On episode 25 of the Inspiration 4 Teachers Podcast Show, Ashley Manuel, Head of PE & Sport at Immanuel Primary School, Adelaide, Australia and founder of Growing with Gratitude has developed a new revolutionary approach to help teachers and learners build positive habits.

Together Ashley and I discuss simple and effective strategies to implement positive habits of well-being into your classroom.

Episode take-aways:

  • Benefits of introducing habits of well-being, happiness and gratitude into your classroom
  • Classroom activities for promoting happiness, gratitude, mindfulness and service
  • How to develop positive and engaging habits
  • Modelling behaviours of service at school and in the community

If you enjoyed this article please tweet the knowledge forward and share with your community!



The Best Lesson I Never Taught

As part of lesson study in my school (Soham Village College) I decided to try and develop a one off lesson which involved no teacher participation at all! Obviously careful preparation was paramount to success and the lesson did take several hours to put together. The activities were not as rigorous as I would usually plan for in a GCSE history lesson (some were pretty much there for fun) but it was a fascinating experiment and experience and demonstrated just how well students can work in collaboration (and independently) if we give them the opportunity.

Students came in – creepy music playing – tables set out with mixed ability group names on and an A4 envelope which stated – ‘Do not open until told to do so’. Groups were carefully selected in advance.

I handed a scroll to a quiet but able student which said – ‘You are the only person allowed to touch the computer this lesson – get up and open the folder called ‘start here’ – after the video has played ensure the screen with all of the folders on is visible’. Handing this student the note was the one and only teacher interaction for the whole lesson.


The student opened the intro video and I appeared on screen dressed as a creepy clown – this set the ‘mystery/horror’ mood of the lesson – the clown tells the class that if they are ever to leave they need to solve the mysteries and riddles during the lesson.


The clown tells the students to open the envelopes on the table. Inside they find a selection of sources, an A3 grid and an instruction sheet. Very quickly and efficiently the students worked out what to do. An interesting observation at this point was how natural leaders developed in groups and how groups took different approaches. Some choose to split the work amongst the group to speed up time. Others choose to work as one group with one member reading the sources to the rest. From my observations all students were involved in this first task.

3This task took them about 13 minutes and involved them trying to decide if the sources (9 in total) were for or against the statement on 19th century policing – at this point I was interested (and slightly nervous) as to what would happen next. They had no further instructions – all the clown had said was that the code would be revealed if they got it right. It was fascinating to watch as one student got up and started checking what other groups had got – the class worked together sharing thoughts until eventually they released that there were 5 sources for the statement and 4 against – this matched one of the folders on the screen ‘5F4A’ – the student chosen at the start moved to the PC opened the folder and this revealed the second clown video.

This video congratulated them and then told them to look under their chairs – which caused great excitement! Under selected chairs I had stuck words. There was no further instruction. The students who had words removed them – some students then took a lead and it was fascinating to see them organise themselves. They decided to use sellotape to pin the words onto the board – then they started rearranging them to make sense – it took no time at all for them to work out the message – ‘Look between the black and blue book on the shelf’. This then gave them the next batch of A4 envelopes.


5These A4 envelopes contained an article on the police and a sheet with another statement – this time on the failure of the police to catch Jack the Ripper. They had to read the article and identify reasons as to why the murderer was never caught and how far this was the fault of the police force. They worked out fairly quickly that this would reveal another code. Again they worked well and shared their findings across groups. One problem was that they only completed one side of the table as they quickly realised there was only one folder with 4 agree (4A 5D). Although this showed good initiative it meant they did not fully consider the arguments against the statement. Once solved the allocated student opened the folder and the clown appeared again. He is getting more erratic and evil by this point! The clown tells them to look under the recycling bin where they find the envelopes for the next task.

6The penultimate task involved the class trying to break 4 different codes – some involved replacing numbers with letters others involved changing letters – they were given no instruction as to what the code might be. It was interesting to observe how groups worked again. Some groups worked as a four – one code at a time. Other groups split and took a code each. The natural leaders worked out that working as a class was the most efficient method some students starting asking the whole class if any were solved yet. They were looking for factors as to why the crime rate fell in the late 1800s. Once they solved all 4 riddles they worked out they needed to open the folder called – Police, living, prisons, tax.

On opening the final video the clown presented the class with a riddle to solve. They were told that once they had solved it they should open the cupboard at the back of the class. They played the video a couple of times and then one student solved it. This was a special moment as the person who solved the riddle is an FFT E grade prediction – for a moment there she became the class hero!

When they opening the cupboard they were presented with 5 envelopes – ‘The Maid’ – ‘The Gardener’ – ‘The Butler’ – ‘The Wife’ – ‘The Cook’. The answer to the riddle was the maid. On opening this envelope they got the final code.

The final video gave them the end silly message from the clown and concluded the lesson. The whole thing had lasted 55 minutes – timings could not have been more perfect! I had not spoken to the class for the whole lesson (just sat at the back largely ignored by the students) and the only action taken during the whole lesson was handing the note to the student at the very beginning!


A Deeper Approach to Planning Learning Experiences

Engineering effective learning experiences: Motivated by a recent chat with the ever stimulating Carl Gombrich (@carlgomb) I wanted to take an earlier article where I discussed a form of Curriculum which synthesises Challenge Based and Collaborative Group Learning a little further.

In this article I wish to outline and extend an approach I and a number of colleagues apply when designing long term (curriculum) and short term sequences of learning experiences. The approach, presented here as steps and in diagrammatic form, acts as a learning driven planning framework which provides a foundation for a range of pedagogies, especially those aligned with a Group, Cooperative or Collaborative Group Learning Process, to be applied.

Step 1, the opening move: Before any other step the concept/theme/topic to be explored should be chosen, an aligned Driving Question designed and the time available (in and out of ‘class’) for the learning experience established.

The concept being explored is Justice. This concept will be explored through the Driving Question: How could you make your world more Just? 6 weeks are available for this concept to be explored.

Step 2, establish the Core: Decide what subject/domain specific Knowledge, Understanding and Skills you wish learners to develop. Due to longer term planning such decisions about KUS should be shaped by where the learning is coming from and where it is going to; what has been learnt, what needs to be developed. The chosen K & U act as a Case Study to be investigated and to be used to model later Collaborative and/or Individual activity. It should be these three aspects which will be assessed and progress within them recorded and measured thus providing the learning experience with an academic core.

In this sequence of learning experiences (a unit of work) learners will have an opportunity to develop knowledge about The Holocaust. They will have an opportunity to develop an understanding of The Holocaust in particular the Political Social Economic factors that contributed to The Holocaust and the role People Ideas and Events played within its development. Through this Case Study Learners will be provided with opportunities to develop the skill of Historical Interpretation through Collaborative Enquiry and teacher led Master Classes and enhance the skill of Research & Record through application supported by targeted Master Classes. The development of knowledge will be assessed through a factual test (at the start and end of the sequence to measure K development), understanding assessed through a piece of extended writing about the causes of The Holocaust using agreed criteria (I can statements) and the skill of Research & Record will be assessed through the accurate application of the R&R criteria during preparation for the final artefact; a collaboratively written 5 minute speech.

Step 3, once the subject Core of KUS has been chosen: Decide what Personalised Learning Choices students can make to shape their own learning experiences. The nature of these choices should be informed, but not limited, by the Core. The semi permeable PLC’s can also offer opportunities to connect subject areas. Learners may be given opportunities to find, establish, explore connections between subject areas in terms of KUS relevant to the guiding topic/concept/theme or the Core. Master Classes may be planned to provide personalised support for KUS development.

Learners will have the opportunity to choose an injustice present in their world which they find interesting, they have a passion for, applying R&R to explore the causes of, the nature of and possible solutions to this injustice. Opportunities to explore the injustice along the lines of differing perspectives, for example connecting to Theology, Law, Philosophy, Sociology, Media, Politics, Biology to explore more deeply their chosen injustice. Master Classes will be provided in class and online to support learners to enhance their R&R skills and to attend to emerging deficits in knowledge related to their chosen injustice.

Step 4, rest it all on 6 pillars: These pillars have been chosen as they represent what I believe to be fundamental facets of an affective-effective learning process. Others may feel this selection does not align with their own philosophical, theoretical or ideological beliefs. Many hardcore Constructivists would switch out most of these pillars while Behaviourists would choose a wholly different complement of pillars (perhaps bells and electric shocks).

  • Pillar 1: Metacognition. What opportunities will be provided for learners to reflect upon and act upon their own and others approaches to learning?
  • Pillar 2: Feedback. What opportunities will be provided for self, peer and expert feedback and feedforward? How will feedback be acted upon?
  • Pillar 3: Collaboration. What opportunities will learners have to apply and develop the skills of and processes of collaborative group learning?
  • Pillar 4: Enquiry: What opportunities will be provided to investigate and explore challenges and problems? What opportunities will be provided for learners to construct their own questions and investigations?
  • Pillar 5: Authentic Challenge: What opportunities will be provided for personalisation, in terms of choice and support? How will the learning experience be made authentic? Can the assessment of learning be made authentic?
  • Pillar 6: Pragmatic Rehearsal: What opportunities will be provided for learners to practice exam specific skills?

Pillar 1: Regular opportunities will be provided within learning sessions for students to reflect upon there own learning (WWW & EBI approach). At least two opportunities will be given for the Learning Set to reflect upon their group learning processes. This will in part be stimulated by peer and teacher feedback.

Pillar 2: Peer and teacher feedback will be provided with Warm and Cold forms. Follow Up Time will be built into Learning Sessions enabling learners to act upon the feedback, planning the next steps in their own or the Learning Sets learning. Feedback will be verbal and written, provided for in and out of class learning and following on from each assessment. The assessment of understanding will be followed by feedback and a planned opportunity for learners to respond to feedback. Feedback will also guide which Master Classes should be attended during the injustice investigation.

Pillar 3: The Learning Set will provide for ongoing collaboration, in particular through discussion. Collaborative processes will be activated during The Holocaust interpretations activity following on from The Holocaust Master Class. In particular collaboration will be undertaken through the planning of and undertaking of the injustice investigation (planning for and sharing research) and through the co-authoring of the final 5 minute script for the presentation script.

Pillar 4: The collaborative investigation will require question construction, both driving and research in nature. R&R will facilitate collaborative and individual enquiry into the chosen injustice.

Pillar 5: Authenticity through Learning Set choice of investigation. They will own this investigation, its topic and the questions designed to enact the enquiry. Learners will be encouraged to choose a topic they are passionate about or directly effects them. The final assessed speech will be delivered to a real audience made up of experts, staff, peers and parents.

Pillar 6: GCSE criteria will be applied to the extended paragraph on the causes of The Holocaust giving students a flavour of GCSE expectations.

An additional step could be implemented at this stage to add further sophistication to this planning process. A promotion of Learner Attributes or, as seems very popular with the establishment right now, Character through learning experiences may lead to planning for how each attribute is covertly-overtly developed. Similar to the pillar approach above one may consider how each and every or selected attributes are developed. For example how will I provide opportunities for learners to develop the attribute internationalism through this sequence of learning experiences? How will I recognise it when that attribute is developed? How can I measure the development of that attribute? (My next article ‘Facilitating and Measuring the development of Learner Attributes’ will address each of these questions).

In summary, within much ‘lesson planning’ the process seems to stop at Step 2. Such shallow planning for teaching rather than learning, if I may be so bold, is a hallmark of many classroom. The approach outlined here takes planning, informed by learning, deeper, creating a truer framework for learning and a guide for curriculum as well as ‘lesson’ planning.

I have provided the table below as a structure to guide the planning of sequences, a table which perhaps could replace the somewhat pointless lesson planning proforma many teachers endure while knowing it serves little purpose.

learning experience planning framework

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